Advanced Peltier Elements for Thermoelectric Cooling


Advanced Peltier Element

The Peltier (thermoelectric) element (leg), used in thermoelectric cooling, is a semiconductor-based electronic component. When direct current flows in a certain direction, some heat is dissipated on the hot side by the conductive substrate and heat transfer amplifiers - heat sinks, fan, etc., while the heat is absorbed (cooled) on the cold side of the Peltier element.

Peltier element

The Crystal Ltd. company has 25 years of experience in the development, serial production and technical support of sales of thermoelectric cooling devices. Reference list of Crystal Company has saved up to over 350 companies worldwide over the past 25 years. Confirming its reputation as an honest and open partner, the company has been and remains a reliable supplier of Peltier modules as also known as a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and thermoelectric devices with high performance and high operating life for its customers.

However, today's trends in technological development are rapidly changing under the influence of the development of Industry 4.0 and the introduction of artificial intelligence. This motivates manufacturers to develop and implement new systems and devices. The number of startups using solid-state thermal stabilization based on the Peltier effect is increasing, but excluding the use of “traditional” thermoelectric modules on ceramic substrates. Reducing the dimensions of devices and trying to remove of the high-density heat flow, developers are increasingly connecting thermocouple chains N-type thermoelement + P-type thermoelement directly to an aluminum heat sink, where the mounting surface is oxidized, or to polyamide ultra-thin substrates or ceramic heat sink with welded conducting tabs, cooper.

Responding to the requests of developers, the Crystal Company offers to the market semiconductor, thermoelectric elements (legs) of bismuth telluride, produced in a unique, patented method. For growing profiled crystals of Bi2Te3 –based solid solutions a method of directed crystallization from melt in flat cavity is used.

The crystallization is realized in graphite molding dies due to temperature gradient. Following the special program of temperature decreasing, the crystallization front is displaced along melted material. The plates after crystallization have preset geometry. The following technological processes include EDM (electric discharge machining) cutting and vacuum deposition of metallization films. 100% quality inspection at every of manufacturing operation.

Thermoelectric elements (legs) of any cross-sectional shape, a wide range of electrical conductivity, high figure of merit and having metallized surfaces are available for order right now. Reflow soldering installation method.

External appearance of thermoelectric element

light gray color – nickel layer
dark gray color – layer of Sn-Bi solder

External appearance of thermoelectric element

An example of recording the designation for order

ТЕН – A1(A2) - h – σ - Z - c
ТЕЕ – A1(A2) - h – σ - Z - c

H (E) – conductivity type (H – hole type, E – electron type)

A1 – width, mm. Available in range from 0.3 to 3.15

A2 – length, mm. Available in range from 0.3 to 30.0
NOTE: If A1 is equal to A2, then one size is indicated.

h – material height, mm. Available in range from 0.5 to 3.2

σ – conductivity, Ohm-1cm-1. Available in range from 850 to 1100

Z – figure of merit, x103 K-1. Available the value 2.6 or 3.0
Measured in control samples, by Harman’s Method in vacuum.

c – type coating
NOTE: if type coating not specified then there is no coating.

   Type coating C  

   Thickness nickel, μm  

   Alloy thickness Sn-Bi (<1%), μm  







These types of coatings are recommended depending on the application of different solders:

  • 5B for soldering thermoelements with solders (or pastes) based on Sn-Bi with soldering temperature 140 - 155°C and Sn-Pb with soldering temperature 190 - 230°C.
  • 6B for soldering with solders based on Sn-Sb alloy with soldering temperature 260 - 290°C.

Advantages of Peltier (thermoelectric) Elements from Crystal company

No additional preparation is required before soldering

Excellent temperature response

Accurate temperature control

RoHS completable, lead free

Can be supplied separately P-type or N-type only

Type of packaging as agreed with the customer

Can be ordered N type and P type thermoelectric elements by tailored

Reversing the polarity will switch to a heating or cooling system.

One of the critical features of Peltier elements is that heating as well as cooling is available by changing the electricity flow direction. The current direction and values can be precisely tuned, and the temperature can be accurately controlled. The element directly absorbs and generates heat using a small number of mechanical components, making work more efficient and contributing to energy conservation.

We can ship thermoelectric elements in accordance with the HTS code 3818009000.

Vladimir Ponomarev

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